Problems of Archaeology, Ethnography, Anthropology of
Siberia and Neighboring Territories

ISSN 2658-6193 (Online)

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2019 Volume XXV

DOI: 10.17746/2658-6193.2019.25.574-584

УДК 902. 659

Pectoral Crosses from the Krivoshchyokovo Necropolis

Salnikova I.V.

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Abstract

This article describes the collection of baptismal crosses (278 objects) found during the rescue excavations, “Area of Cultural Layer in the Village of Krivoshchyokovo” located in the construction zone of the bridge across the Ob River in the city of Novosibirsk. The discovered stone foundations of St. Nicholas church partly overlapped the necropolis of the 17th-19th centuries, where 384 burials were explored. Baptismal crosses were the most important and frequently found objects in burial inventory. Investigation of baptismal crosses included X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) of their chemical composition, typological classification of the collection, and iconographic analysis of the objects. XRF analysis of chemical composition of alloys in the objects was conducted on a representative sampling consisting of 29 objects, which included the main types of crosses. Classification of the collections was made using the typology proposed by V.I. Molodin. A number of varieties typical of baptismal crosses of Western and Eastern Siberia have been identified; large circle of parallels has been established, new groups have been discovered, and specific features of decoration on the examples with the known forms have been described. Eight types of crosses have been identified, one of which had not been described before. Comparative analysis between metallographic features of crosses from the Krivoshchyokovo necropolis and crosses from the collections of Ilimsky Ostrog and the sites of Omsk Region have been conducted. XRF analysis of the composition of the objects has shown that their majority was made of compound brass. Three objects in this group had arsenic in their alloy composition. One cross was made of bronze and three crosses were made of lead-based alloys. Iconographic analysis of baptismal crosses has suggested the diversity of confessions among the population which lived in the village of Krivoshchyokovo. This suggestion can be confirmed by the presence of a cross made in the Catholic tradition. In addition, inscriptions on the crosses indicate that the majority of the 18th century burials belonged to the Old Believers. Therefore, either the first settlers were Old Believers, or used religious objects produced by Old Believers artisans.

Keywords

Krivoshchekovo necropol, baptismal crosses, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis, pre-alloy composition, ikonografiya

17, Аkademika Lavrentieva prosp., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
E-mail: sbornik.iaet@gmail.com