Problems of Archaeology, Ethnography, Anthropology of
Siberia and Neighboring Territories

ISSN 2658-6193 (Online)

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2019 Volume XXV

DOI: 10.17746/2658-6193.2019.25.026-035

УДК 902.01

Investigation of the Initial Upper Paleolithic Industries at the Ushbulak Site, Eastern Kazakhstan, in 2019

Anoykin А.А., Harevich V.M., Pavlenok G.D., Bocharova E.N., Markovsky G.I., Gladyshev S.A., Ulianov V.A., Kandyba A.V., Taimagambetov Zh.K., Iskakov G.T., Duvanbekov R.S., Shunkov M.V.

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The article discusses further results of research into Initial Upper Paleolithic complexes at the multi-level Ushbulak site, conducted by the East Kazakhstan Paleolithic Team in 2019. The excavation focused on two locations - unit 2 (3 m2) and test pit 11 (2 m2). Information on the stratigraphy of the excavated units, data on paleontological remains from unit 2, results of the technical and typological analysis of the archaeological evidence obtained in 2019 along with their cultural and chronological interpretation, are presented. In total, 2307 artifacts have been found in levels 5.2-7 (unit 2), and 535 artifacts have been found in test pit 11. Faunal collection consists of 91 teeth, bones, and their fragments including 9 identifiable remains (Equus sp., Bos primigenius). Geomorphological situation at the site and stratigraphy of the profiles have made it possible to compare the cultural levels in test pit 11 with levels 6 and 7 in unit 2 containing the industries of the Initial Upper Paleolithic. Primary reduction was intended for producing blade blanks following parallel volumetric bidirectional method. There were some indications of small blade narrow-faced method of reduction. The leading category of the tool assemblage was end-scrapers on blades, accompanied by burins, piercing tools, truncated spalls, single-edged side-scrapers, and notched artifacts with retouching. The series of “marker” tools - stemmed tools including a point, beveled point, and core-burins, were of special interest. Archaeological evidence from levels 5.2-7, obtained during the field work of 2019, confirms the suggestion that these complexes belong to the group of industries of the Initial Upper Paleolithic of Southern Siberia and Mongolia. The closest parallels to these complexes occur in horizon UP2 at Kara-Bom site in the Russian Altai Mountains.


Eastern Kazakhstan, Initial Upper Paleolithic, multi-layered site, lithic industry, blade knapping technology, “marker” tools

Chief Editor
Academician A.P. Derevyanko

Deputy Chief Editor
Academician V.I. Molodin

17, Аkademika Lavrentieva prosp., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

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